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HCOT 05: Leviticus 1-10

Watts, J. W.
Peeters
2013-11-15
PB ?| 0 x 0 x 0 Inch| 1 kg| 567 pages| ISBN 9789042929845
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* 주문 최종 결제 시 해외배송료 ? 와 Surcharge ? 가 발생할 수 있습니다.

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James Watts uses rhetorical analysis for this detailed exposition of Leviticus 1-10. In dialogue with a wide variety of contemporary scholarship on Leviticus, this commentary also engages the history of the book’s interpretation and the history of Jewish and Christian ritual practices. Leviticus’s rhetoric aimed to persuade ancient Israelites to make offerings to God. It legitimized the monopoly of Aaronide priests over Israel’s offerings and over determining correct ritual practice. The priests in turn established the Torah containing Leviticus as the authoritative text of Israel’s religion. Rhetorical analysis of Leviticus thus leads to new insights into the role of priests in raising the Pentateuch to the status of scripture and in shaping the biblical canon. It also calls attention to the role of ritual rhetoric in the polities of later Jewish and Christian groups, despite the fact that neither religion makes animal offerings as Leviticus 1-10 mandates.

목차

CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XI
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND ADDITIONAL ABBREVIATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . XIII
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
§1. CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
§1.1 Translating Leviticus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
§1.1.1 Ritual vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
§1.1.2 Verbs in commandments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
§1.1.3 Forms of address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
§1.2 The text of Leviticus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
§1.3 Structure and form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
§2. CONTEXTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
§2.1 Leviticus in the Pentateuch and in the Bible . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
§2.2 Performing Leviticus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
§2.2.1 Oral performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
§2.2.2 Ritual performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
§2.2.3 Leviticus in art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
§2.3 Leviticus in recent scholarship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
§2.3.1 Compositional histories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
§2.3.2 Literary interpretations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
§2.3.3 Symbolic systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
§2.3.4 Theological symbolism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
§2.3.5 Theories of sacrifice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
§2.3.6 Ritual theories and interpretations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
§2.3.7 Ideological criticisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
§2.3.8 Rhetorical analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
§2.3.9 Histories of interpretation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
§2.3.9.1 Leviticus in Second Temple Judaism . . . . 74
§2.3.9.2 Leviticus in Rabbinic Judaism . . . . . . . . . . 75
§2.3.9.3 Leviticus in early and medieval Christianity 77
§2.3.9.4 Leviticus in modern Judaism . . . . . . . . . . . 80
§2.3.9.5 Leviticus in modern Christianity . . . . . . . . 83
§3. RHETORIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
§3.1 Ritual rhetoric in the ancient Near East and the Pentateuch 91
§3.2 Legal rhetoric: the social function of ancient law . . . . . . . . 100
VI Contents
§3.3 Temple rhetoric: audience and diaspora . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
§3.4 Rhetoric about priestly authority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
§3.5 Scripturalization and anti-priestly rhetoric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
§3.6 Rhetoric about wives: Midianites, Cushites, Samaritans . . 119
§3.7 Rhetoric about ancestors: Aaronides, Zadokites, Levites . . 123
§3.8 Sectarian rhetoric: Jews, Samaritans, Christians . . . . . . . . . 129
§3.9 Leviticus’s cultural rhetoric: God, pollution, law, ethics . . 132
COMMENTARY
INTRODUCTION TO LEVITICUS 1-7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
The Search for Ritual Genres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Rhetorical Features of Leviticus 1-7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
The Rhetorical Aim of Leviticus 1-7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
RISING OFFERINGS (1:1-17) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Essentials: Contents, Contexts, Rhetoric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Exposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Additional Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Structure of Leviticus 1-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Structure of Leviticus 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Explaining the Priority of the Rising Offering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
The History of the Rising Offering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Exegesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Heading (1:1-2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Bulls (1:3-9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
Sheep and Goats (1:10-13) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Chickens and Pigeons (1:14-17) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
COMMODITY OFFERINGS (2:1-16) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
Translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
Essentials: Contents, Contexts, Rhetoric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Exposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Additional Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Structure of Leviticus 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
History and Interpretation of the Commodity Offerings . . . . . . . 233
History and Interpretation of Incense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
History and Interpretation of the Bread Offerings . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
Exegesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Contents VII
Raw Semolina Offerings (2:1-3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Bread Offerings (2:4-10) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
Digression on Additives (2:11-13) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
First Produce Offerings (2:14-16) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
AMITY SLAUGHTER OFFERINGS (3:1-17) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
Translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
Essentials: Contents, Contexts, Rhetoric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
Exposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
Additional Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
Structure of Leviticus 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
History and Interpretation of the Amity Slaughter Offering . . . . . 272
Exegesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
SIN AND GUILT OFFERINGS (4:1-5:26/Eng. 6:7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
Translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
Essentials: Contents, Contexts, Rhetoric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
Exposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
Additional Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
Structure of Leviticus 4-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
History and Interpretation of the Sin and Guilt Offerings . . . . . . 303
History and Interpretation of Blood Rituals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
History and Interpretation of ??? “Mitigation / Atonement” . . . . 322
Exegesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
Heading (4:1-2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
The High Priest’s Sin Offering (4:3-12) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
The Assembly’s Sin Offering (4:13-21) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
The Leader’s Sin Offering (4:22-26) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
The Individual’s Sin Offering (4:27-34) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
Circumstances that Require a Sin Offering (5:1-6) . . . . . . . . . . . 354
The Individual’s Sin Offering, continued (5:7-13) . . . . . . . . . . . 362
The Guilt Offering (5:13-26/Eng. 6:7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
PRIESTLY INCOME FROM OFFERINGS (6:1/Eng. 6:8-7:38). . . . . . . 376
Translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
Essentials: Contents, Contexts, Rhetoric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
Exposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
Structure of Leviticus 6-7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
History and Interpretation of Income from Offerings . . . . . . . . . 386
Exegesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390
The Law of the Rising Offering (6:1-6, Eng. 6:8-13) . . . . . . . . . 390
VIII Contents
The Law of the Commodity Offering (6:7-11, Eng. 6:14-18) . . . . . 395
The Perpetual Commodity Offering (6:12-16, Eng. 6:19-23) . . . . . 402
The Law of the Sin Offering (6:17-23, Eng. 6:24-30) . . . . . . . . 406
The Law of the Guilt Offering (7:1-6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
Comparisons of Priestly Incomes Among Offerings (7:7-10) . . . . 410
The Law of the Amity Slaughter Offering (7:11-21) . . . . . . . . . 412
Prohibitions on Consuming Fat and Blood (7:22-27) . . . . . . . . . 419
Worshippers’ Participation in and Priests’ Prebends from Amity
Slaughter Offerings (7:28-34) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421
Concluding Refrains (7:35-38) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
INTRODUCTION TO LEVITICUS 8-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
THE CONSECRATION OF PRIESTS AND TABERNACLE (8:1-36) . . . 436
Translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436
Essentials: Contents, Contexts, Rhetoric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
Exposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
Additional Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
Structure of Leviticus 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
The Ancient Textual Rhetoric of Divine Command and Human
Fulfilment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443
Ritual Interpretations of Leviticus 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446
History and Interpretation of Consecrating and Vesting . . . . . . . 448
Exegesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452
Preparations (8:1-4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452
Vesting (8:5-9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
Anointing and Vesting Again (8:10-13) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463
The Sin Offering (8:14-17) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
The Rising Offering (8:18-21) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
The Filling Offering (8:22-29) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470
Anointing Again (8:30) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
Seven Days of Consecration (8:31-36) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474
INAUGURATION OF THE TABERNACLE SERVICE (9:1-24) . . . . . . . 479
Translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479
Essentials: Contents, Contexts, Rhetoric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480
Exposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482
Structure of Leviticus 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482
History and Interpretation of Cult Initiation Stories . . . . . . . . . . 484
Exegesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488
Instructions and Preparations (9:1-7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488
The High Priest’s Offerings (9:8-14) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492
Contents IX
The People’s Offerings (9:15-21) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495
Blessings and Theophany (9:22-24) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498
RITUAL FAILURE AND RITUAL AUTHORITY (10:1-20) . . . . . . . . . . 503
Translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503
Essentials: Contents, Contexts, Rhetoric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504
Exposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507
Additional Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507
Structure of Leviticus 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 508
The Literary Form and Rhetorical Function of Ritual Failure . . . . 511
History and Interpretation of Priests as Teachers of Torah . . . . . 517
Interpreting Echoes of Nadab and Abihu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 520
Interpreting Stories of Errant Sons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523
Exegesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525
Ritual Failure and Consequences (10:1-7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525
Priestly Authority in Ritual and Teaching (10:8-11) . . . . . . . . . . 537
Ritual Observance and Innovation (10:12-20) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543
AUTHOR INDEX OF BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND FOOTNOTES . . . . . . . . 553
VOLUMES OF THE HISTORICAL COMMENTARY ON THE OLD
TESTAMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 559
ABBREVIATIONS OF PERIODICALS, REFERENCE WORKS, AND
SERIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 561
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